Kunming Declaration; Countries For Biodiversity on Right Path

Eighty Percent Biodiversity Sites Have Human Presence

More than 100 countries on October 13 pledged their committed to develop, adopt and implement an effective post-2020 global framework aimed to put biodiversity on a path to recovery by 2030 at the latest.

The countries made the commitment in the Kunming Declaration, adopted at the end of the UN Biodiversity Conference’s High Level Segment held in Kunming, China. The State Leadership was called to act urgently on biodiversity protection in decision-making and recognise the importance of conservation in protecting human health.

The landmark post 2020 global biodiversity framework is due to be adopted at part two of the UN Biodiversity Conference in May 2022, following further formal negotiations in January 2022. The Declaration gives clear political direction for those negotiations


The High Level Segment also led to the creation of the Kunming Biodiversity Fund, with Chinese President Xi Jinping, pledging around 230 billion dollars to establish the Fund, and support biodiversity in developing countries.

Apart from this, Japan announced that it would also boost the Country’s Biodiversity Fund by 17 billion dollars. The Signatory nations would work towards the full realisation of the 2050 vision of “Living in Harmony with Nature”, ensuring that post-pandemic recovery policies, programmes and plans contribute to the sustainable use of biodiversity, and promote inclusive development.

Meanwhile Executive Secretary of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Elizabeth Maruma Mrema noted that the adoption of Kunming Declaration was a clear indication of the worldwide support for the level of ambition that needs to be reflected in the post-2020 global biodiversity framework to be finalised.


France’s President Macron highlighted the commitment for 30 per cent of climate funds for biodiversity”. The United Kingdom also said that a significant part of its increased climate funding will be directed towards biodiversity.

In addition, a coalition of financial institutions, with assets of 12 trillion Euros, committed to protect and restore biodiversity through their activities and investments.


Countries are expected to adopt the proposed global biodiversity framework in May 2022, following further formal negotiations next January.

The UN Biodiversity Conference consists of three meetings.  In addition to COP15, meetings of the Parties to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, and the Nagoya Protocol on access and sharing of genetic resources, are also taking place.

The conference is held in two phases. The present segment runs through October 15 and will be followed by in-person meetings in Kunming from 25 April to 8 May 2022.

Kunming Declaration 

The Countries pledged to

  • Ensure the development, adoption and implementation of an effective post-2020 global biodiversity framework,that includes provision of the necessary means of implementation, in line with the Convention, and appropriate mechanisms for monitoring, reporting and review, to reverse the current loss of biodiversity and ensure that biodiversity is put on a path to recovery by 2030 at the latest, towards the full realization of the 2050 Vision of “Living in Harmony with Nature”
  • Support, as appropriate,the development, adoption and implementation of an effectivepost-2020 Implementation Plan, and Capacity Building Action Plan, for the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
  • Work across our respective governments to continue to promote the integration, or “mainstreaming” of the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity into decision-making including through the integration of the multiple values of biodiversity into policies, regulations, planning processes, poverty reduction strategies and economic accounting, and strengthen cross-sectoral coordinating mechanisms on biodiversity
  • Accelerate and strengthen the development and update of the National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans,to ensure the effective implementation of the post 2020 global biodiversity framework at national level
  • Improve the effectiveness, and increase the coverage, globally,of area-based conservation and management through enhancing and establishing effective systems of protected areas and adopting other effective area-based conservation measures, as well as spatial planning tools, toprotect species and genetic diversity and reduce or eliminate threats to biodiversity, recognizing the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities and ensuring their full and effective participation
  • Strengthen sustainable use of biodiversity for meeting the needs of people
  • Actively enhance the global environmental legal framework and strengthen environmental law at national level, and its enforcement, toprotect biodiversity and to combat its illegal use, andtorespect, protect and promote human rights obligations whentaking actions to protect biodiversity
  • Step up our efforts to ensure, through the Convention, the Nagoya Protocol and other agreements as appropriate, the fair and equitable benefit-sharing arising out of the utilization of genetic resources, including traditional knowledgeassociated with genetic resources, taking into account the context of digital sequence information on genetic resources
  • Strengthen measures, and their implementation, for the development, assessment, regulation,management, and transfer, as appropriate, of relevant biotechnologies, with a view to promote the benefits and to reduce the risks, including those associated with the use and release of living modified organisms which are likely to have adverse environmental impacts
  • Increase the application of ecosystem-based approaches to address biodiversity loss, restore degraded ecosystems, boost resilience, mitigate and adapt to climate change, support sustainable food production, promote health, and contribute to addressing other challenges, enhancing One Health and other holistic approaches and ensuring benefits across economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development, through robust safeguards for environmental and socialprotection, highlighting that such ecosystem-based approaches do not replace the priority actions needed to urgently reduce greenhouse gas emissions in a way that is consistent with the goals of the Paris Agreement
  • Step up actions to reduce the negative effects of human activities on the ocean to protect marine and coastal biodiversity and strengthen the resilience of marine and coastal ecosystems to climate change
  • Ensure that post-pandemic recovery policies, programmes and plans contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, promotingsustainable and inclusive development
  • Work with ministries of finance and economy, and other relevant ministries, to reform incentive structures, eliminating, phasingout or reformingsubsidies and other incentives that are harmful to biodiversity, while protecting people in vulnerable situations, to mobilize additional financial resourcesfrom all sources, and align all financial flows in support of the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity; 14.Increase the provision of financial, technological and capacity building support to developing countries necessary to implement the post 2020 global biodiversity framework and in line with the provisions of the Convention
  • Enable the full and effective participation of indigenous peoples and local communities, women, youth, civil society, local governments and authorities, academia, the business and financial sectors, and other relevant stakeholders, and encourage them to make voluntary commitments in the context of the Sharm el Sheikh to Kunming Action Agenda for Nature and People, and to continue to build the momentum for the implementation of the post 2020 global biodiversity framework
  • Further develop communication, education and public awareness tools on biodiversity to support changes in behaviour towards the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity
  • Further enhance collaboration and coordinate actions with ongoing multilateral environmental agreements, such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, and the biodiversity-related conventions, as well as the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and other related international and multilateral processes, to promote the protection, conservation, sustainable management and restoration of terrestrial, freshwater and marine biodiversity, while contributing to other sustainable development goals, aligned to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development


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